2016 Journal WEATHER AND CLIMATE Vol 36. | The Meteorological Society of New Zealand

2016 Journal WEATHER AND CLIMATE Vol 36.

The 2016 Journal WEATHER AND CLIMATE Vol 36 is being printed and will soon be posted to those requesting a hard copy.

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Journal of the Meteorological Society of New Zealand (Inc) 

Volume 36           December 2016

 1.  The cold air drainage model KLAM_21 - Model formulation and comparison with observations. 

U. Sievers and M. Kossmann     

Correspondence to: Meinolf Kossmann (meinolf.kossmann@dwd.de


A brief description of the physics and numerical techniques of the cold air drainage model KLAM_21 is presented. The single layer model has been developed as an environmental consultancy tool for simulations of nocturnal airflow in hilly and mountainous terrain under dry fair weather conditions. Typical model applications include frost protection (cold air ponding) and air quality (nocturnal ventilation). Basic KLAM_21 outputs are the depth and total heat deficit of the cold air layer and the layer averaged velocity and direction of the airflow. Optionally, effects of an ambient (regional) wind and/or the dispersion of a passive tracer can be simulated. Comparisons of model simulations with observations at two sites in Germany and from a case study in Christchurch (NZ) are presented for model evaluation. Good agreement between KLAM_21 simulations and observations is found for cold air layer depths, near surface winds, and spatial drainage wind patterns.


  2  Development of the New Zealand Earth System Model: NZESM.

J. Williams, O. Morgenstern, V. Varma, E. Behrens, W. Hayek, H. Oliver, S. Dean, B. Mullan, and D. Frame  

Corresponding author email: jonny.williams@niwa.co.nz Ph: 0064 (0)4 386 0303 
Key Words: Climate Model, Earth System Model, Deep South National Science Challenge 


The New Zealand Earth System Model (NZESM) is currently under development to help inform scientists, policy makers, climate-sensitive sectors of the economy, and the general public in New Zealand about climate change.  The term ‘climate model’ is generally used to describe a computer model that incorporates physical aspects of the climate system such as atmospheric and oceanic fluid mechanics and thermodynam- ics. In addition, Earth System Models represent aspects of biology and chemistry such as marine biogeochemistry and atmospheric ozone chemistry. The development of the NZESM represents a step-change in model complexity for New Zealand science, and a major motivation for its development is to reduce Southern Hemisphere specific mod- elling problems such as the formation of Southern Ocean sea ice and Antarctic Bottom Water. The atmosphere, land surface, ocean and sea ice components of the model are already available in New Zealand. In the future, additional models representing (for ex- ample) ocean biogeochemistry and marine ice-sheets will also be added to the NZESM framework. Over the next 5 years, the NZESM will be run to produce hindcasts for the past 150 years and projections for up to 200 years into the future. Such experiments will “. . . enable New Zealanders to adapt, manage risk, and thrive in a changing climate”, which is the mission statement of the Deep South National Science Challenge. Over the next decade, the NZESM will be used in Earth System science research throughout New Zealand, both in terms of pure science and via communication of its results to New Zealanders.


3. The Canterbury supercell of 23 February 2014: a misoscale analysis based on amateur automatic weather stations. Brian Giles        

Correspondence: email: gilesnz@orcon.net.nz 

Keywords: Supercell thunderstorm, misoscale analysis, Christchurch (New Zealand), automatic weather station
The paper demonstrates how misoscale analysis techniques could be carried out using an amateur automatic weather stations (AWS) network for a complex collection of cells.  The misoanalysis techniques were used to identify and separate the pressure and wind patterns over Greater Christchurch during the late afternoon (1600-1900 local time) of 23 February 2014.  At this time 35 automatic weather stations (AWS) were reporting but only 32 had usable data within the time frame.  Using both radar images and AWS data three thunderstorms crossed the city at the time and two of them amalgamated at about 1800.  



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